Tesi economia sul fotovoltaico



Tesi economia sul fotovoltaico

For other uses, see Enel (disambiguation).

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Enel is an Italian multinational manufacturer and distributor of electricity and gas.

Enel, which originally stood for National Board for Electricity (Ente nazionale per l'energia elettrica), was first established as a public body at the end of 1962, and then transformed into a limited company in 1992.[2] In 1999, following the liberalization of the electricity market in Italy, Enel was privatized.[3] As of February 2015, the Italian government is the owner of 25.5% of the company's shares.[4][5][6][7]

In 2014, Enel employed about 70,000 people,[8][9][10][11][12][13] works in about 30 countries[14][15] and at the end of 2013 – with 80.5 billion euro of revenue and a market capitalization of 31 billion euro – is the 56th company in the world by revenue.[16][17][18] The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.[19]

Contents

History[edit]

1898–1962: Towards a national policy for electricity[edit]

The hydroelectric power station of Rocchetta a Volturno

In 1898, the production of electricity in Italy was of 100 million kilowatt hours[20][21][22] reaching a value of over  billion by 1960.[23][24] The majority of the electricity was produced by regional private companies,[25][26][27] or by companies linked to other industrial bodies,[28][29][30][31][32][33] that were both local and regional, by exploiting the specific characteristic of the territory: its hydrogeological resources.[34][35]

The state subsidized the construction of power stations and any necessary construction work in the territory in order to increase the production of electricity.[36][37][38] In terms of distribution, the state intervened in 1961 by unifying national tariffs on the basis of equal consumption classes (through the Equalization Fund for the Electricity Sector[39][40]) and by requiring power companies to provide access to electricity to everyone.[29][33][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48]

In 1962, the government institutionalised the Entity for electricity with the aim of making electricity a means for the development of the country and in order to define a national policy for electricity based on the experiences of other countries such as France and Britain.[45][46][49][50][51][52]

1962: Establishing the National Entity for Electricity[edit]

Enel logo (1963–1982)

At the beginning of 1962, the Fanfani IV Cabinet made its commitment to the government to put together a proposal for the unification of the national electricity system within three months of the parliament casting its confidence motion.[50][53][54][55][56] During the Chamber of Deputies assembly of 26 June 1962, the government presented a bill that sanctioned the principles and procedures for the establishment of the Entity for Electricity (E.N.EL.).[27][57][58][59]

According to the bill, Enel was going to acquire all assets of all companies operating in the production, processing, transmission and distribution of electricity, with the exception of self-producers—companies that produced more than 70% of their electricity for other production processes—(the same exception was later applied to municipal authorities), and of small businesses that did not produce more than 10 million kilowatt hours per year.[60][61][62][63][64]

Procedures to assess the value of the acquired companies were defined, and it was established that compensation were to be paid to creditors in 10 years at an interest rate of 5.5%.[61][65] In this framework, 1962 was to be considered a transition year, in which all income and expenses of the acquired companies would be transferred to Enel. 1963 was thus the first operational year of the newly formed company.[66][67][68][69]

The first companies to be acquired were:[70]

1963–1970: Modernization and development of the network[edit]

Enel’s early goals were the modernisation and development of the electricity grid with the construction of high voltage backbones, international connections, connection to the islands, the electrification of rural areas and the creation of the National Center for dispatching. These projects were to be co-financed by the state through the issuing—in 1965—of bonds of a value of over 200 billion Italian liras.[75][76] In 1967 Enel’s supervision was redirected from the Committee of Ministers to the interministerial Committee for Economic Planning (CIPE), under the Ministry of Industry.[61][77][78] During this period, the production of thermoelectric power surpassed for the very first time that of hydroelectric power.[79][80]

National dispatch centre[edit]

In 1963, the National Dispatch Centre of Rome was created in order to manage the energy flows on the network by coordinating the production plants, the transmission network, the distribution as well as the interconnection of the Italian electricity system with that of foreign countries, by adjusting in real time the production and transmission of energy on the basis of the actual demand.[2][70][76][81][82][83][84]

Rural electrification[edit]

In terms of rural electrification the settlements that were not connected to the electricity grid went from 1.27% in 1960 to 0.46% in 1964, with over 320,000 new residents connected. In the five-year period between 1966 and 1970 further investments for rural electrification were made — 80% of the costs were covered by the state and 20% by Enel — those were complemented by reduced rates as an incentive for agricultural development.[85][86][87][88][89]

High-voltage network and connection to the islands[edit]

In 1968, the construction work of the 380 kV connection between Florence and Rome began with the aim of joining the high voltage electrical system of the north with that of the south centre.[90][91] Around the same time international high voltage connections with France (380 kV Venaus-Villarodin, 1969) and Switzerland were also put in place.[55][92]

In the same years undersea electrical cables were put in place to connect the peninsula and the islands of Elba (1966),[93] Ischia (1967)[93][94] and Sardinia through Corsica (1967).[80]

The Vajont disaster[edit]

Enel was involved in the Vajont Dam disaster, which took place at the Vajont reservoir, which was artificially created to produce a large quantity of hydroelectric power. On 9 October 1963 a huge landslide of 260 million cubic metres fell into the reservoir. The dam and power plant had been built by SADE (Società Adriatica di Elettricità – Adriatic Electricity Company) and then sold to Edison and had just been transferred as part of the nationalisation process to the newly set up Enel.

The impact of the landslide created huge waves in the Vajont reservoir, which partially flooded the villages of Erto e Casso and swept over the dam, totally wiping out the towns in the valley below it: Longarone, Pirago, Rivalta, Villanova and Faè. Approximately two thousand people died in the disaster. Enel and Montedison were charged at the ensuing trial as the companies responsible for the disaster, a responsibility considered all more serious because of the predictability of the event. The two companies were forced to pay damages to the communities involved in the catastrophe.

1970–1980: The energy crisis and the search for new sources[edit]

Enel advert "For a better and more economical use of energy" during the years of the energy crisis (1976–1977)[95][96]

The decade of the 1970s was distinguished by a major energy crisis that led the company to drastic austerity measures and the establishment of a national energy plan that defined the objective of both building new power plants and the search for new energy sources.

In 1975, as a result of the 1973 oil crisis and the Austerity measures, and following the definition of the first National Energy Plan (PEN), the aim of the company became that of reducing Enel’s dependence on hydrocarbons. This was to be achieved with the use of other energy sources, which included hydro, geothermal, increasing the use of coal, the waste cycle and in particular with the use of nuclear power.[61][97][98][99][100]

Several new plants were built in the course of the decade.[101] In the early 1970s, the construction of the nuclear power station Caorso (Emilia-Romagna)—the first major nuclear power plant in Italy (840-860 MW)—began. The station became operational in 1978.[102] Between 1972 and 1978, the hydroelectric plant of Taloro was built in the province of Nuoro (Sardinia).[103] In 1973, the hydroelectric plant of San Fiorano became operational (Lombardy). In 1977, a thermoelectric power plant opened in Torre del Sale, near Piombino (Tuscany).[104] At the end of the 1970s the construction of thermal power plant of Porto Tolle began (Veneto). Its first completed section became active in 1980.[105][106]

Between 1971 and 1977, the pilot 1000 kV transmission facilities in Suvereto (Tuscany) were tested.[107][108][109][110][111] In 1974, the construction work of the Adriatic high voltage electric backbone was completed.[112][113][114]

Between 1973 and 1977, wells for the production of geothermal energy were drilled in Torre Alfina, in the province of Viterbo (Lazio).[115][116] The dam of Alto Gesso (Piedmont) was completed in 1982 as part of the hydroelectric power station Luigi Einaudi "Entracque".[117][118]

1980–1990: renouncing nuclear power[edit]

The 1980s was characterised by the construction of new plants and testing of alternative forms of energy, as well as a gradual reduction of oil reliance that went from 75.3% in 1973 to 58.5% by 1985.[119][120][121]

In 1986, Enel had its first positive balance, with 14 billion and 100 million Italian liras gross profit.[122][123][124][125]

Finally, in 1987, in the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster, the first referendum on nuclear power took place. This marked the end of nuclear power in Italy, the closing and suspension of all construction of nuclear power stations and the establishment of a new national energy plan.

In the same decade several plants became active.[126] Among these, the thermoelectric power plant of Fiumesanto (Sardinia) in 1983–84,[50][127][128] the pumped-storage hydroelectricity power station of Edolo (Lombardy) in 1984–85, one of the biggest of its kind in Europe,[129][130][131][132] and the thermoelectric power plant of Torrevaldiagia Nord (Lazio) in 1984[50][133][134]

With regards to alternative energy:

During 1985 the national center for the dispatch and control of the electricity network was gradually transferred from the center of Rome to Settebagni, and made a part of a bigger European network of synchronisation of the production of electricity.[157][158]

Referendum, the closing of nuclear power plants and the new national energy plan[edit]

See also: Chernobyl disaster and Italian referendums, 1987

Following the Chernobyl disaster of 1987, a referendum sanctioned the interruption of all production of nuclear power in Italy. In relation to existing nuclear power plants or those that were under construction at the time:[102][159][160][161][162]

  • The nuclear power station of Caorso (Emilia-Romagna), that had been inactive since 1986 due to refuelling, was never reactivated and was finally closed in 1990.
  • In 1987, the nuclear power station Enrico Fermi, in the village of Trino Vercelli (Piedmont) was deactivated—with all plans of a second plant cancelled. The plan was finally shut down in 1990.
  • In 1988 the work started in 1982 for the construction of the nuclear power station Alto Lazio, located in Montalto di Castro, were interrupted. In 1989 it was converted into a multi-fuel plant.
  • In 1988, the nuclear power station of Latina (Lazio) was shut down.
  • The nuclear power plant of Garigliano (Campania) had been shut down since 1978.

In 1988, the new National Energy Plan (PEN) established its key objectives as: increase energy efficiency; environmental protection; exploitation of national resources; diversification of supply sources from abroad; overall competitiveness of the production system.[159][163][164][165][166][167]

1990–2000: liberalisation and privatisation[edit]

Between 1990 and 2000, the country witnessed a progressive liberalisation of the electricity market.[159]

In July 1992, the Amato I Cabinet turned Enel into a limited company with the Treasury as the sole shareholder.[168]

In 1999, the Bersani Decree mark the beginning of the liberalisation of the electricity market; a corporate restructuring of Enel began, with the unbundling of the production, transmission, dispatch and sale of energy.[169][170][171]

New plants and alternative energy[edit]

  • In 2000, Enel launched a project to connect Italy and Greece’s power grid by laying an underwater power line of 160 km length to connect Otranto (Apulia) with the Greek city of Aetos (Peloponnese) and capable of carrying 600 megawatts. The project, completed in 2002, had a total cost of 339 million euros.[172][173][174]

With regards to alternative energy:

Liberalisation, privatisation and stock market launch[edit]

  • In 1991, Law No. 9/1991 sanctioned a first partial liberalisation of the production of electricity generated from conventional sources and renewable sources; companies were allowed to produce electricity for their own use with the obligation to hand over the excess amount to Enel.[159][181][182]
  • In 1999, the D'Alema I Cabinet issued the Legislative Decree no. 79 of 16 March 1999—(known as the Bersani Decree)—to liberalise permanently the electricity sector. This opened up the possibility for other actors to operate in the energy market. Enel, that had so far been the only actor in the production, distribution and sale of electricity in Italy, had now to change its corporate structure by distinguishing the three phases and constituting three different companies: Enel Produzione, Enel Distribuzione and Terna (Terna was sold by Enel in 2005). Moreover, Enel was given a maximum threshold of electrical energy production equal to 50% of the entire production on national soil.[171][183][184][185][186][187][188]
  • In 1999, 31.7% of the company—in its new structure—was privatised. Following privatization Enel was put on the stock market; its shares were listed on the Italian Stock Exchange with a value of 4.3 euro per share; the total supply was of 4.183 million shares for a total value of 18 billion euros.[189][190][191][192][193][194]

Other operations[edit]

2000–2010: environmental policies and internationalization[edit]

During the 2000s, the company worked on policies to reduce the environmental impact of the production of energy and on a progressive internationalization of Enel through a number of mergers and acquisitions.[200][201][202]

Environmental policies[edit]

Mergers and acquisitions[edit]

  • In 2000, Enel—through its subsidiary Erga—acquired CHI Energy, a renewable energy producer operating in the US and Canadian markets; the operation cost Enel 0 million.[210][211][212]
  • In 2001, Enel won the tender offer for the purchase of Viesgo—a subsidiary of Endesa—a company active on the Spanish market in the production and distribution of electricity with a net installed capacity of 2400 MW.[213][214][215][216]
  • In 2004, Enel was included in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index, a stock market index that evaluates the financial performance of companies based on economic, environmental and social performance.[217][218][219]
  • In 2002, Enel divested Eurogen SpA, Elettrogen SpA and Interpower SpA in compliance with the Bersani Decree provisions on the liberalization of the electricity production.[220][221][222][223]

New plants and alternative energy[edit]

  • In 2001, Enel began the construction of a 1095 km long high-voltage transmission line in Brazil.[224][225]
  • In 2009, Enel launched the Archilede project: a new urban lighting system chosen by 1600 municipalities. This new intelligent lighting technology resulted in approximately 26 GWh per year of energy saving, and reduced carbon dioxide emissions by 18,000 tons per year.[226][227][228]
  • In 2009, Enel opened a new photovoltaic power station in the Park of Villa Demidoff in Pratolino (Florence). The project - called "Diamante" – was that of a plant capable of storing enough of the energy accumulated during the day in the form of hydrogen and use it during the night hours.[229][230][231]
  • In 2010, the Archimede solar field became operational at Priolo Gargallo, near Syracuse in Sicily. This was the first thermal solar field to use molten salt technology integrated with a combined cycle gas facility.[232][233][234]

Other operations[edit]

  • In 2001, Enel acquired Infostrada—previously property of Vodafone; the cost of the operation was of 7.25 billion euro. Infostrada was later on merged with Wind Telecom (17 million customers between fixed, mobile and Internet services).[235][236][237][238][239][240][241][242]
  • In 2005, Enel assigned 62.75% (the remaining 37.25% was divested in 2006) of Wind to Weather Investments S.a.r.l., a company belonging to the Egyptian businessman Naguib Sawiris, at the time CEO of Orascom.[243][244][245]
  • In 2008 and 2009 Enel Stoccaggi and Enel Rete Gas were sold to investors, mainly Primo Fondo Italiano per le Infrastrutture.

2010–today[edit]

This period was marked by the appointment of a new board of directors, that defined the reorganisation of assets abroad and reducing the company’s debt as the company’s main priorities for the future.

Industrial activities[edit]

  • In 2011, Enel opened the first pilot carbon dioxide capture facility in the country, in the area of Brindisi in the existing power plant ENEL Federico II.[246][247][248][249]
  • In 2011—in Isernia in the region of Molise—Enel Distribuzione built its first Smart grid, a grid able to adjust effectively the two-way flow of electricity generated from renewable sources. The total investment for this project was of 10 million euro.[250][251][252]
  • In 2012 Enel and Renault—as part of e-mobility and Smart City—collaborated to manufacture a car model that would allow the customer to locate in real-time the nearest Enel charging point and retrieve information on its availability. Enel had previously collaborated with other car manufacturers such as Opel, Mercedes and Piaggio.[253][254][255][256][257]

Corporate activities[edit]

  • In 2012 Enel sold the remaining 5.1% of Terna which was still in its possession, thus exiting completely the high-voltage market.[258]
  • In 2013 Enel signed an agreement, in Sochi, for the sale of 40% of Arctic Russia, a joint venture with Eni, which in turn controlled 49% of SeverEnergia, for .8 billion.[259][260]
  • In May 2014, Maria Patrizia Grieco was elected president of the board of directors and Francesco Starace was appointed CEO. The main objectives were set to be the reorganisation of activities in Iberia and Latin America and debt reduction.[261][262][263][264][265]

Research and development activities[edit]

  • In 2011, Enel signed a Memorandum of understanding with the City of Rome and the University of Rome La Sapienza for the construction and installation of Diamante, a Photovoltaic power station capable of accumulating and storing energy, thus making it available in the absence of solar light.[266][267]
  • In 2011, Enel Distribuzione, a company that manages the distribution network of Enel, and NEC Corporation, signed a strategic partnership agreement with the aim of developing new technologies and solutions in the field of Smart Grids.[268][269][270]
  • Between 2012 and 2014 Enel Distribuzione and General Electric collaborated in research projects in the field of energy efficiency and reduction of CO2 emissions.[271][272][273]
  • In 2012 Enel and Huaneng Clean Energy Research Institute signed a Memorandum of understanding aimed at strengthening cooperation in the development of clean coal technologies, renewable energy and distributed generation.[274][275]
  • In 2014 Enel together with Endesa, Accelerace, and FundingBox has initiated the INCENSe program (Internet Cleantech Enablers Spark), which was co-funded by the European Commission for the promotion of technological innovation in renewable energy, and was joined by over 250 start-ups from 30 countries in 2015.[276][277][278]

Other operations[edit]

  • In 2011 Enel became part of the United Nations Global Compact, a United Nations initiative to encourage businesses to adopt sustainable policies worldwide.[279]
  • In 2011 Enel was admitted into the FTSE4Good Index of the London Stock Exchange which measures businesses behaviour in terms of environmental sustainability, relationships with stakeholders, human rights, the quality of working conditions and fight against corruption.[280][281]
  • In 2011, Enel signed a cooperation framework agreement with the World Food Programme of the United Nations, in the fight against world hunger and climate change. The cost of the project was of 8 million euros and included the production and distribution of high-efficiency cooking stoves, the installation of photovoltaic systems in the all WFP logistical premises, as well as support to humanitarian interventions.[282][283][284]
  • In 2012, Enel confirmed its participation at Expo 2015, winning two contracts to build its Smart Grid - an intelligent network to optimise energy distribution - on site.[285][286]
  • In 2014 and 2015 Enel was included in the STOXX Global ESG Governance Leaders index, an index that measures a company's environmental, social and governance practices.[287][288]
  • At the Expo 2015, Enel presented Powering Education, launched together with The Coca-Cola Company and Givewatts, a project aimed at increasing the consumption of renewable electricity in rural areas of Kenya, through the distribution of solar lanterns to a number of schools in the territory.[289][290][291]

Activities[edit]

Listed on the Milan stock market since 1999, and headquartered in Rome, Enel is part of a group of companies that produce and distribute electricity and gas in 30 countries around Europe, North America, South America, Asia and Africa.[292][293][294][295][296]

The group employs around 70,000 people, has over 60 million customers worldwide (56 million in the electricity market, and in the 6 million in the gas market) and a net installed capacity of over 89 GW, it is the first in Europe for number of customers and second, after EdF, for capacity.[292][294][297][298][299][300][301][302][303]

Electricity production[edit]

Enel produces electricity through a number of different energy sources including geothermal, wind power, solar power, hydroelectric power, thermal and nuclear power. In 2014 the Enel Group generated a total of 283.1 billion kWh of electricity, distributed 395.4 billion kWh, and sold 261 billion kWh.[304] Since 2008 Enel has entrusted the production of electricity from renewable sources to its subsidiary, Enel Green Power.[305][306][307]

Summary table of net capacity of electricity production Country Enel Installed

net capacity

(2015)

Enel energy

produced in the country

(2014)

Percentage of the total

of energy produced by Enel

Total energy

produced in the country

(2014)

Europe 59.1 GW 178.3 TWh 896 TWh Italy 30,810 MW[308] 71.8 TWh[309] 24.0% 299 TWh[310] Spain and Portugal 23,042 MW[311] 69.7 TWh[312] 18.4% 377 TWh[310] Slovakia 4,032 MW[313] 20.6 TWh[314] 85.8% 24 TWh[310] Romania 534 MW[315] 15.0 TWh[316] 26.3% 57 TWh[310] Belgium 406 MW[317] 0.7 TWh[318] 0.8% 83 TWh[310] Greece 308 MW[319] 0.5 TWh[320] 0.9% 56 TWh[310] North America 2.1 GW 6.4 TWh 4,718 TWh USA and Canada 2,083 MW[321] 6.4 TWh[322] 0.1% 4,718 TWh[310] Central America 1.0 GW 2.8 TWh 320 TWh Panama 312 MW[323] 1.1 TWh[320] 15,7% 7 TWh[310] Messico 495 MW[324] 0.8 TWh[325] 0.2% 296 TWh[310] Guatemala 164 MW[326] 0.7 TWh[327] 8.7% 8 TWh[310] Costa Rica 55 MW[328] 0.2 TWh[328] 2.2% 9 TWh[310] South America 17.5 GW 62.8 TWh 813 TWh Chile 6,886 MW[329] 20 TWh[330] 31.7% 63 TWh[310] Argentina 4,400 MW[331] 14.4 TWh[331] 12.1% 119 TWh[310] Colombia 3,000 MW[332] 13.5 TWh[332] 21.7% 62 TWh[310] Peru 1,900 MW[333] 9.1 TWh[333] 23.9% 38 TWh[310] Brazil 1,353 MW[334] 5.8 TWh[334] 1.1% 531 TWh[310] Asia 8.9 GW 42.4 TWh 1,057 Twh Russia 8,944 MW[335] 42.4 TWh[335] 4% 1,057 TWh[310] Africa 0.4 GW 0.8 TWh 21 TWh Morocco 384 MW[336] 0.8 TWh[337] 3.8% 21 TWh[310] Total 89.0 GW 293.5 TWh 7,825 TWh

Research and Development[edit]

Enel is also engaged in research and development activities for the production and transmission of electricity. These include:

  • the design and implementation of "hybrid plants" that combine the use of different sources and technology for energy storage, in order to increase the efficiency of plants.[338][339][340]
  • the development of Smart grids that increase efficiency and sustainability in the distribution of electricity, with the support of the European Community.[341][342]

The Italian Market[edit]

In Italy, Enel operates in the following fields:

  • the production of electricity through Enel Produzione,[343] and that of renewable energy, through Enel Green Power.[344]
  • the supply of electricity by Enel Energia.[345]
  • the distribution and transformation of electricity and maintenance of the plants through Enel Distribuzione.[346]
  • consumer protection services through Enel Electric Service - which guarantees the supply of energy at the fixed price established by the Authority for Electricity and Gas in those areas in which Enel Distribuzione is the sole provider.[347]
  • street lighting and artistic lighting through Enel Sole.

Following the liberalization of the market, Enel can no longer produce more than 50% of the total electricity produced in Italy,[348] and like all other providers is bound by the universal service act and by European standards to connect to the grid anyone who requests so. Generally, Enel is subject to the supervision and decisions of the Authority for Electricity and Gas.[349][350]

International Activity[edit]

Enel's presence worldwide

Globally the group Enel, through its subsidiaries, covers the following areas and activities:

  • The production, distribution and resale of electricity and gas in the Iberian Peninsula, Latin America and Morocco, through Enel Iberoamerica and the subsidiaries Endesa and Enersis,[351][352] and in Russia through its subsidiary Enel Russia.[353][354]
  • The production of electricity from renewable sources worldwide (North America, South America, Africa, Europe and Asia) through Enel Green Power.[355][356]
  • In North Africa, Algeria and Egypt operating in the gas sector.[357][358]
  • Conducting fundraising financial activities, and using the funds in investment operations through its subsidiaries Enel Investments, Enel Finance International and International Endesa (located in the Netherlands).[359]

Enel operates in Europe: Bulgaria, France, Greece, Italy, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain and Portugal. In North America: Canada and United States. And in Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama and Peru. Through its subsidiary Endesa, Enel is also present in Morocco.

Enel is organised in five divisions:

  • Global Generation: in charge of the production of electricity.
  • Global Infrastructure and Networks: covers transport infrastructure and energy distribution.
  • Renewable energy: covers the production of energy from renewable sources referring to Enel Green Power and whose general director since May 2014, Francesco Venturini, is also the CEO of Enel Green Power.[360][361][362]
  • Global Trading: provides Enel Group companies as well as third parties both with goods to be used in power plants and with optimisation services for energy production and distribution.[363]
  • Upstream Gas: in charge of investments for the exploration, production, and development of infrastructure for transporting gas.

Enel is present in Europe (Bulgaria, France, Greece, Italy, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Spain), North America (Canada and United States) and Latin America (Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico and Panama). Thorough its subsidiary Endesa, Enel is also present in Argentina, Colombia, Morocco, Peru and Portugal.[364]

Europe[edit]

Belgium[edit]

In Belgium Enel produces energy for a total capacity of 406 MW with the Marcinelle Energie power plant.[365]

Bulgaria[edit]

Enel is present in Bulgaria through Enel Green Power that acquired two wind farms in 2008 and doubled their capacity by 2010, for a total of 42 MW. The plants are located in Kamen Bryag and Shabla in the north-east of the country along the coast of the Black Sea.[366][367][368] The plants were scheduled to be sold in 2011.[369][370][371]

Cyprus[edit]

In Cyprus Enel operates in the territory via Enel Trade; the company participates for 12.5% in a consortium for the exploration and production of gas in the Leviathan gas field located between Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon.[372][373][374][375][376]

France[edit]

Enel supplies electricity in France and owns 5% of the energy exchange Powernext.[377]

Greece[edit]

In Greece, Enel operates through Enel Green Power’s hydropower (19 MW), photovoltaic (71 MW) and wind (199 MW) power plants for a total of 289 MW.[378][379][380][381][382]

Netherlands[edit]

In the Netherlands, Enel operates through a number of financing companies (Enel Finance International N.V., Enel Investment Holding B.V., International Endesa B.V.) that raise funds through bond issuances and other forms of financing, and invest in the production and distribution of electricity. Enel is also present through Endesa Energia S.A., a company that sells gas and electricity to large customers in Europe.[383]

Romania[edit]

In Romania, Enel has over 2.6 million customers through majority shares in a number of electricity distribution companies in Sud-Muntenia, including in Bucharest, in the Banat and in Dobruja.[384] The sale of these companies, announced in mid 2014, was withdrawn in early 2015. Through Enel Green Power, Enel is also one of the country’s electricity manufacturers, with a total capacity of 534 MW.[384][385]

Russia[edit]

Enel is active in Russia in a number of different areas:[386]

  • through Enel Russia’s thermal power stations it produces electricity for a total capacity of 9,677 MW.[387][388]
  • in the resale of electricity, with RusEnergoSbyt.
  • in the distribution of electricity with the installation of electronic electricity meters.

Slovakia[edit]

In Slovakia Enel owns 66% of Slovenské Elektrárne, which was acquired in 2006. Enel produces electricity for a total of 5,700 MW[389] from nuclear, thermal and hydroelectric power.[390] From the end of 2014, Enel has received several offers from buyers interested in acquiring its shares of Slovenské Elektrárne.[391]

Spain and Portugal[edit]

Through its participation in Endesa, Enel is currently the main operator in Spain and Portugal, with a total electricity production of 23,474 MW (6,500 MW of which is renewable) and over 11 million customers in the electricity market, and 1.2 million in the gas market.[392] In addition, Enel produces renewable energy with Enel Green Power España, for a total capacity of 1,745 MW in Spain, and of 163 MW in Portugal.[393][394]

Turkey[edit]

In Turkey Enel takes part in the exploration for the production of geothermal energy with Enel Green Power and the group Meteor Uzun.[395][396][397]

North America[edit]

United States and Canada[edit]

In the United States of America and in Canada Enel Green Power North America (formerly known as Enel North America[398]), a company controlled by Enel Green Power, generates hydropower, geothermal and wind power, and biomass for a total capacity of 2,083 MW (1,980 MW in the US, and 103 MW in Canada).[399]

South America[edit]

In 2014 Enel—through Enel Green Power—is the second largest producer of solar energy in Latin America. Projects scheduled for the coming years are going to increase tenfold the photovoltaic production, turning the company into the first photovoltaics manufacturer in the region.[400]

Argentina[edit]

In Argentina Enel produces electricity through Enel Américas’s subsidiaries—Endesa Costanera, Hidroeléctrica El Chocón, and Dock Sud—for a total capacity of 4.522 MW.[401][402] Through EDESUR Enel distributes electricity to over 2.3 million customers in the country.[403]

Brazil[edit]

Enel produces electricity in Brazil through its subsidiaries Enel Américas Fortaleza and Cachoeira Dourada for a total capacity of 987 MW. Enel also operates in the transmission of electricity through Enel CIEN, as well as in the distribution through:[404]

  • Ampla, which covers both the city and the State of Rio de Janeiro with over 2.6 million customers.
  • Coelce, in the State of Ceará, with over 3.4 million customers.

Through one of its subsidiaries, Enel Brasil Participações Ltda, Enel Green Power produces electricity from renewable sources for a total of 376 MW - 203 MW of solar energy and 173 MW of hydroelectric power - with plans to expand to 378 MW.[404][405][406][407][408][409]

Chile[edit]

In Chile Enel produces electricity for 6,590 MW. Through Enel Green Power Chile, Enel produces over 300 MW between hydropower and wind power, and is currently exploring options for geothermal energy.[410][411][412][413][414][415][416][417] A notable example of Enel's products in Chile are Transantiago's electric buses.

Colombia[edit]

In Colombia Enel produces electricity for a total capacity of 2,994 MW.[418]Enel Green Power develops projects for alternative energy in the country.[419][420]

Ecuador[edit]

Following an agreements signed at the end of 2011 Enel currently explores for geothermal energy sources in Ecuador.[421]

Peru[edit]

In Peru Enel produces electricity for a total capacity of 1,802 MW.[333] Since 2011, Enel Green Power Peru has been working to develop alternative energy sources in the country and obtaining various concessions for electricity plants.[422][423][424][425][426][427]

Uruguay[edit]

Through Enel Green Power, Enel has been building a wind power plant for 50 MW in Uruguay.[428][429][430][431][432]

Central America[edit]

Costa Rica[edit]

Through Enel de Costa Rica S.A., a subsidiary of Enel Green Power Latin America, Enel produces electricity for a total of 55 MW, of which 24 MW is wind generated and 31 MW comes from hydroelectric power.[433][434] The new hydropower plant Chucas, currently under construction, will generate an additional 50 MW.[435][436][437][438][439][440][441][442]

Guatemala[edit]

Through Enel Green Power Guatemala, Enel produces electricity—generated entirely from hydroelectric power—for a total of 163 MW in the country.[443][444][445]

Mexico[edit]

Enel has been present in Mexico since 2007. Through Enel Green Power it produces energy for 399 MW, of which 346 MW is wind power, and 53 MW is hydroelectricity.[446][447][448][449][450]

Panama[edit]

Enel Fortuna—a subsidiary of Enel Green Power Panama—produces energy with a total capacity of 300 MW, which is calculated as 23% of the national demand for 2014. The company’s plan is to build new solar power plants in order to generate a further 29.9 MW.[451][452][453][454]

Africa[edit]

Algeria[edit]

In Algeria, Enel holds 13.5% of the gas reserves in the Illizi Basin, in the southeast of the country, and 18.4% of the field of Isarene.[372] In 2014, together with Dragon Oil, Enel acquired the gas exploration licenses for two additional areas, Msari Akabli and Tinrhert North. In Msari Akabli Enel is also going to be the first operator with a stake of 70%, while Tinrhert North it will own a 30% stake.[455][456][457][458][459][460][461]

Egypt[edit]

In Egypt Enel holds 10% of the gas exploration licence for the area of El Burullus.[462][463][464][465]

Morocco[edit]

Enel manufactures electricity in Morocco with Energie Electrique de Tahaddart, for a total capacity of 384 MW.[466] In 2010, Enel Green Power took part in the tender for the construction of a solar thermal power plant.[467][468] At the beginning of 2014 Enel Green Power was given the objective to produce wind power in Morocco. The plan was implemented in late 2014 with the participation in the call for the construction of 5 plants for a total capacity of 850 MW.[469][470][471][472]

South Africa[edit]

In South Africa Enel Green Power owns a photovoltaic power plant with a total capacity of 10MW. Enel’s future plan is to build a number of wind farms and photovoltaic power plants for a total capacity of 513 MW.[471][473][474][475][476][477]

Subsidiaries[edit]

Italy[edit]

In Italy Enel owns the following companies that produce, distribute and resell electricity:[478]

  • The whole of Enel Produzione and, through Enel Produzione the following:
    • 49% of Hydro Dolomiti Enel.[479]
    • 51% of ENergy Hydro Piave.
  • The whole of Enel Servizio Elettrico—that deals with the sale of electricity on the regulated market.[480]
  • The whole of Enel Energia—that deals with the sale of electricity and natural gas on the free market and to end customers. Enel Energia also owns 100% of Enel.si, a company that offers renewable energy solutions to end customers and franchises "Punto Enel Green Power".[481]
  • In the production of electricity from renewable resources Enel owns 69.171% of Enel Green Power which in turn owns several subsidiaries worldwide, in Europe, North America, and South America.[482]

With regards to infrastructures and grids Enel owns:[478][483]

  • 100% of Enel Distribuzione – for the distribution of electricity.
  • 100% of Enel Sole – which deals with public and artistic lighting.

For trading on international markets and in Italy, as well as for the procurement and sale of energy products including gas, Enel owns 100% of Enel Trade, which in turn owns 100% of Enel Trade Romania, Enel Trade Croatia and Enel Trade Serbia.[70][478]

Through Enel Trade, Enel also owns Nuove Energie, a company that specialises in the construction of regasification plants.[70][478][484]

Europe[edit]

In Belgium, through Enel Investment Holding, Enel owns 100% of Marcinelle Energie - owner of the homonymous power plant which was acquired in 2008 by Duferco Diversification.[485][486][487] The company was scheduled to be sold to Gazprom with a letter of intent in 2013, at the beginning of 2014 the sale was pending regulatory changes and not yet completed.[488][489][490][491][492][493]

In France Enel owns 5% of the French energy exchange Powernext.[377]

In Spain - through its subsidiary Enel Iberoamerica (previously known as Enel Energy Europe[494]) – Enel holds 70.1% of Endesa, acquired in 2009 with a stake of 92.06%.[495][496][497][498] The acquisition earned Enel the 2009 Platts Global Energy Award for Deal of the Year.[499] In 2016 Endesa acquired Enel Green Power España from Enel for €1.207 billion.[500]

Enel has been operational in Russia since 2004:[364]

  • Through Enel Investment Holding BV, it owns 56.43% of Enel Russia (formerly OGK-5).[386][387][501][502]
  • Since 2008, through Enel Investment Holding BV, it also owns 49.5% of the electricity supplier RusEnergoSbyt.[503]

In 2013 Rosneft, through NGK Itera, bought 40% of Enel’s stake in Arctic Russia BV, a company which owned 19.6% of SeverEnergia.[504][505][506][507][508][509]

Latin America[edit]

In Argentina Enel controls Edesur through Enersis and Distrilec Inversora S.A., the latter is owned for 51.5% by Enersis.[478][510]

In Chile, through Enel Iberoamerica (formerly known as Enel Energy Europe[494]), as a result of the purchase of Endesa and Endesa Latinoamerica S.A., Enel owns 60.62% of Enersis Chile.[511][512]

In Peru, through Enel Américas, and following the cartel signed with Inkia America Holding in 2014, Enel owns a 58.6% stake of Edegel Peru, now called Enel Generación Perú.[513]

eMotorWerks[edit]

eMotorWerks is a "supplier of electric vehicle (EV) Charging stations, called JuiceBox, and owner and operator of JuiceNet, an Internet of Things (IoT) platform for the smart management of EV charging and other distributed energy storage facilities".[514] It was acquired by Enel in October 2017.

Company information[edit]

Major shareholders[edit]

Board of Directors[edit]

Chairman Maria Patrizia Grieco[516]

nominated in May 2014

Managing Director Francesco Starace[517]

nominated in May 2014

Board member Alfredo Antoniozzi[518]

nominated in May 2015

Board member Alessandro Banchi[519]

nominated in May 2011

Board member Alberto Bianchi[520]

nominated in May 2014

Board member Paola Girdinio[521]

nominated in May 2014

Board member Alberto Pera[522]

nominated in May 2014

Board member Anna Chiara Svelto[523]

nominated in May 2014

Board member Angelo Taraborrelli[524]

nominated in May 2011

Chairmen[edit]

Managing Directors[edit]

Marketing[edit]

Logo[edit]

Enel's 1998–2016 logo designed by Bob Noorda for the company's privatisation.[541] Enel`s new logo presented 26 January 2016

In 1982 was invented the company's famous logo, designed by Bob Noorda and Maurizio Minoja, which is a sun and a 9 tree whose branches or 9 rays represent the diversity of the services offered by the company.

At the heart of a new expression sits the cursor, an iconic visual symbol that represents Open Power. It was presented on 26 January 2016. The new expression is as diverse and open as the company. It is a range of 8 colours, all of which are used in logo. Each letter consists of a cursor, followed by a colourful trail of energy. Its unique typography has been used throughout all brands of the company: for Enel, Enel Green Power and Endesa. This helps to create a strong, consistent family of brands.[542]

Expo 2015[edit]

In 2015, Enel took part in Expo 2015, Milan, as an Official Global Partner. With a 29 million euros investment,[543][544] as well as building its own pavilion, Enel built a Smart City[545][546][547][548][549] over the entire Expo area, simulating a city of 100,000 inhabitants with a total energy consumption of 1,000,000 kWh per day.[546][548][550][551][552]

The Smart City comprises:

Enel Cuore[edit]

Enel Cuore was founded in October 2003, by the project, supported by Enel and its subsidiaries, in order to create a non-profit organization separate from the company itself and able to carry out activities in support of communities, families and individuals while maintaining the ideals of cooperation.[citation needed]

Controversies[edit]

Osage Wind LLC[edit]

On 11 November 2014, the United States Attorney for the Northern District of Oklahoma filed suit against Enel's subsidiary. Osage Wind LLC, an 84-turbine industrial wind project in Osage County, Okla.[555] In the suit, the United States alleges that Enel and Osage Wind are illegally converting minerals owned by the Osage Nation, a Native American tribe that has owned all mineral rights in the county since 1871.[556] The suit says that Osage Wind should have obtained a permit from the Bureau of Indian Affairs before mining rock and other material for the pits in which turbine bases are built. The United States asked that all excavating on the 8,500 acre site cease and that dozens of turbines that are already being erected be removed. Osage Wind has insisted that it is not mining and needs no permit. The company says that it has already spent nearly 0 million on the project, which is being built on privately owned fee land, not land held in trust for American Indians.[555]

Osage Wind LLC and a second and adjacent Enel wind project, Mustang Run, are also embroiled in challenges pending before the Oklahoma Supreme Court in which the Osage Nation and Osage County, Okla., are challenging the constitutional legitimacy of permits for both projects.[558]

El Salvador[edit]

The company had to exit El Salvador electricity market after a long dispute with the Government of El Salvador [1]. The constitution of El Salvador (Art 109) states that the natural resources (underground) are the country's property and the government would not allow foreign companies to be the sole proprietor of the geothermic generation. Both parties came to a settlement in 2014, but no details have been released.

Another setback for Enel has been the recent loss it had with the government of Slovakia where it had been demanding over EUR 94 million from the Ministry of Economy in compensation for lost earnings it claims to have incurred as price proposals were rejected by utilities regulator URSO.[560]

Also as per an article of December 2014, in bne INTELLINEWS www.bne.eu/, "Slovakia puts more obstacles in way of Slovenske Elektrarne sale," (Prime Minister Robert) "Fico claims the Italian utility has blocked access to information that would allow Bratislava to assess if the plant’s profit is fairly distributed between Enel and the Slovak state, TASR news agency reported."[561]

Balance sheets[edit]

Analysis of Enel’s 2006 financial statement[edit]

Proceeds totalled 38,513 million euros (33,787 million in 2005, + 14.0%). EBITDA were 8,019 million euros (7,745 million in 2005, +3.5%); net of an allocation of around 400 million euros for an operating excellence plan, EBITDA 2006 increased by 8.7% over 2005. EBIT were 5,819 million euros (5,538 million in 2005, +5.1%). The Group’s net profits were 3,036 million euros (3,895 million in 2005, - 22.1%); net of the contribution by Wind and Terna, the Group’s net profits in 2006, increased by 1.4% over 2005. Net financial borrowing totalled 11,690 million euros (12,312 million at 31 December 2005, -5.1%). The total dividend offered for the whole 2006 financial year was 0.49 euros per share (of which 0.2 euros per share was paid in advance in November 2006).[citation needed]

Analysis of Enel’s 2007 financial statement[edit]

Proceeds totalled 43,673 million euros (+13.4%), EBITDA were 10,023 million (+25.0%), EBIT were 6,990 million (+20.1%), the Group’s net profits were 3,977 million (+31.0%), net financial borrowing increased to 55,791 million due to the Endesa take-over, total net assets were 23,789 million, the Debt-Equity ratio was 2.35. The dividend offered for the whole 2007 financial year was 0.49 euros per share (of which 0.2 euros per share was paid in advance in November 2007).[citation needed]

Analysis of Enel’s 2008 financial statement[edit]

Proceeds rose to 61,184 million euros (+40.0%), EBITDA were 14,318 million euros (+45.5%), EBIT were 9 million euros (+40.7%), the Group’s net profits increased to 5,293 million euros (+35.2%) net financial borrowing dropped to 49,967 million euros (-10.4%). The dividend offered for the whole 2008 financial year was 0.49 euros per share (of which 0.2 euros per share was paid in advance in November 2008).[citation needed]

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